Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. The location of the temple is approximately 100 km southwest of Hyderabad and 40 km northwest of Yogyakarta. This temple was founded by the followers of Mahayana Buddhism around the year 800 AD during the reign of the dynasty dynasty. In the ethnic Chinese, this temple is also called 婆罗 浮屠 (Hanyu Pinyin: po luo fu tu) in Mandarin.
The name Borobudur
Many theories that attempt to explain the name of this temple. One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces. In addition there are some other folk etymology. Suppose that the word comes from the greeting Borobudur "the Buddha" who because of a shift in sound to Borobudur. Another explanation is that thethe name is comes from two words "coal"and " beduhur". The word bara said to have originated from the word

monastery, while there are also other explanations where the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery complex and beduhur meaning is "high", or to remind the Balinese language means "above". So the point is a monastery or hostel located on high ground.
Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation for a doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions Karangtengah and Kahulunan, Casparis estimate Borobudur founder of the dynasty was the king of Mataram dynasty named Samaratungga, who do construction around the year 824 AD The giant new building could be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Borobudur Development estimated take half a century. In Karangtengah inscriptions also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima (tax-free land) by Cri Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra. Kamulan term itself comes from the word meaning place of first origin, the ancestral shrine to glorify, probably ancestors of the dynasty Sailendra. Casparis estimates that Bhumi Sambhāra Bhudhāra in Sanskrit language meaning "Mount of the set of ten levels boddhisattwa virtue", was the original name of Borobudur.
Borobudur Structure  
Borobudur is seen from the northwest corner of the court

Borobudur Mandala sketch form, a symbol of the universe in Buddhist cosmology.

Candi Borobudur has berundak punden basic structure, the six-yard square, three round shaped circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak. Besides a few scattered in all pelatarannya stupa.Ten court held Borobudur clearly illustrates the philosophy of the Mahayana sect. Like a book, Borobudur described ten levels of Bodhisattva is to be done to achieve the perfection of the Buddha.Borobudur represents Kamadhatu foot, that the world is still dominated by kama, or "low desire". This section mostly covered by a pile of stone that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple. As part of a closed structure, there are 120 additional panel Kammawibhangga story. A small additional structure that is set aside so people can see the relief in this section.Four floors of wall berelief on it by experts named Rupadhatu. The floor is square. Rupadhatu the world who have set themselves free from lust, but is still bound by the appearance and shape. It represents the natural levels of that, the natural environment and on the bottom. As part of this Rupadhatu statues of Buddha found in the niche-niche in the wall or hall ballustrade.Starting from the fifth to the seventh floor walls are not berelief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no form or shape). Circular floor map. These levels represent the nature, where man is free from all desires and bond forms and shapes, but have not reached nirvana. The statues of Buddha placed in the stupa as perforated closed in parentheses. From outside the statues were still vaguely visible.The highest levels of existence symbolized the absence of the largest stupa and the top. Stupa depicted plain without holes. In the largest stupa is a Buddha statue was found incomplete or unfinished also called the Buddha, a statue of disalahsangkakan Adibuddha, but through further research, there has never been a statue at the main stupa, the statue was not finished pemahatnya mistakes in the past. according to the belief that one statue in the manufacturing process can not be destroyed. Archaeological excavations conducted at this temple site to find more images like this.In the past, several Buddha statues along the 30 miles to the relief, two statues of lions, some form of old stones, stairs and gates are delivered to the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn who visited the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch when it.Borobudur has no worship spaces like other temples. That there are long hallways are narrow streets. Restricted lanes around the temple walls for the floor level. In the lanes is expected to conduct Buddhist ceremonies walk around the temple to the right. Of buildings without spaces and multi-storey structure is thought to represent the development of berundak punden form, which is the original architecture of the prehistoric Indonesia.
Borobudur structure when viewed from above form a mandala structure.
Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, unless the interlock system is like Lego blocks-blocks that can be attached without glue.
Stages of development Borobudur
First phase
Borobudur development time is not known with certainty (estimated between 750 and 850 M). As originally built bunk bunk system. It seems designed as a pyramid berundak. but then changed. As there is good evidence that dismantled bunk.
The second phase
Borobudur diperlebar foundation, plus two square terraces and a circular terraces were given huge main stupa.
Third phase
Terraces on the circle with a large main stupa dismantled and removed and replaced by three circular terraces. Stupa-stupa-terraces built on top of these terraces with a large stupa in the middle.
The fourth stage
There are minor changes such as making changes in relief on the curved staircase and doors.

Summary of the process of restoration of Borobudur Temple 
The first photograph of Borobudur in 1873. Flag of the Netherlands looked at the main stupa of the temple.

 The highest terrace after restoration Van Erp. The main stupa has a tower with chattra (umbrella) stacking three.
Memorial stone restoration with the help of UNESCO's Borobudur temple

• 1814 - Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, heard of the discovery of archaeological objects in the village of Borobudur. Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the discovery site, a hill covered with shrubs. 
• 1873 - the first monograph on the temple issue.
 • 1900 - Dutch East Indies government established a committee of refurbishment and maintenance of the temple of Borobudur. 
• 1907 - Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911.
 • 1926 - Borobudur restored again, but stopped in 1940 due to malaise and the crisis of World War II. 
• 1956 - Government of Indonesia requested assistance of UNESCO. Prof. Dr. C. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of damage to Borobudur. 
• 1963 - The Indonesian government issued a decree to restore Borobudur, but the mess after the events of the G-30-S.
• 1968 - At a conference-15 in France, UNESCO agreed to provide assistance to rescue Borobudur. 
• 1971 - Government of Indonesia established a body which is chaired Prof.Ir.Roosseno restoration of Borobudur. 
• 1972 - International Consultative Committee was formed with the involvement of various countries and Roosseno as its chairman. Committee sponsored by UNESCO to provide 5 million U.S. dollars from 7750 million dollar refurbishment costs the United States. The rest is borne Indonesia. 
• August 10, 1973 - President Soeharto inaugurated the commencement of the restoration of Borobudur; restoration was completed in 1984 
• January 21, 1985 - bomb attack which destroyed some of the stupa at Borobudur Temple which was immediately repaired. Attacks carried out by Islamic extremist groups led by Hussein Ali Al Ethiopia. 
• 1991 - Borobudur designated as World Heritage by UNESCO.